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February 22, 2022 - Comments Off on Civil Society Strongly Condemns the Prevention of Electronic Crimes (Amendment) Ordinance, 2022

Civil Society Strongly Condemns the Prevention of Electronic Crimes (Amendment) Ordinance, 2022

February 22, 2022

We, a coalition of civil society organisations, are alarmed by the enactment of the Prevention of Electronic Crimes (Amendment) Ordinance, 2022 as it is an affront to online free expression in the country, amounting to unprecedented censorship and chilling of free speech in digital spaces. The Ordinance runs afoul of Articles 19 and 19A of the Constitution of Pakistan which guarantees freedom of expression. Furthermore, the process by which the amendments have been made, arbitrarily and via Ordinance bypassing Parliament, is an affront to democratic values.

The Ordinance expands on the already problematic section 20 of the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act 2016 (PECA) to make it a non-bailable offence. The offence of criminal defamation under section 20 has already been used to target journalists, political opponents and survivors of gender-based violence, leading to calls from civil society to repeal the section. Instead of paying heed to these calls, the government has, in a blatant disregard to human rights, chosen to expand the section further to apply to legal persons as opposed to “natural persons” as was previously covered. This Ordinance seeks to include defamation of “public figure or a holder of public office” within the ambit of the section which will have the effect of insulating those in power from any criticism. It is obvious that the sole purpose of this Ordinance is to make it criminally punishable to criticise the state and its officials, against settled jurisprudence that extends protections through defamation to private persons as opposed to public figures who lesser protections.

Furthermore, criminal defamation is internationally recognised to be violative of the freedom of expression, especially when civil remedies exist in the law. While the freedom of expression under the Constitution is not absolute, it bears noting that defamation is not part of the provisos to Article 19 in the Constitution. The amendments, additionally, which mean the expansion of criminal sanctions on the fundamental right to free speech are neither proportionate (as they expand the term of punishment from 3 to 5 years) nor necessary.

Secondly, the use of an Ordinance to amend a law passed by Parliament is extremely worrisome and part of an alarming trend where the government is using its extraordinary powers of Ordinance-making to erode the powers of the Parliament and lawmaking institutions. This is a blatant disregard for the Constitution, which only allows for ordinances to be in extraordinary situations when parliament is not in session and cannot be called into session to address an issue that requires immediate action. Furthermore, this is violative of the principle of the separation of powers as the executive branch through the cabinet and President are overstepping into the legislature’s domain. It is obvious that the government does not wish to pass laws through consultation, allowing no opportunity for discussion or debate–the very objective of the Ordinance itself.

We call on the citizens of Pakistan to recognise this Ordinance for what it is–an attack on their Constitutional right to free expression and access to information. If allowed to stand, this Ordinance will have the effect of completely silencing any differing opinions or forms of expression in the country. It is imperative that opposition parties, who erred when they promulgated PECA in the first place, course correct and block this Ordinance from becoming a permanent feature of the law. Lastly, the government is urged to immediately withdraw the Ordinance and refrain from presenting it for assent once the three-month lifespan of the Ordinance lapses. Instead, we call upon all political parties to repeal section 20 should be done through the Parliament given that it runs afoul the Constitutional right to freedom of speech and expression.


Alliance for Diversity and Pluralism in Media (ADPM)
ASR Resource Center
Bolo Bhi
Courting The Law
Digital Rights Foundation 
Freedom Network 
Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
Institute for Research, Advocacy and Development (IRADA)
Joint Action Committee (JAC)
Media Matters for Democracy 
Pakistan Press Foundation 
Public Lawyers’ Front (PLF)

September 14, 2020 - Comments Off on Women Journalists and Allies Express Outrage at the Murder of Shaheena Shaheen and Demand Concrete Measures of Ensure Safety of Journalists

Women Journalists and Allies Express Outrage at the Murder of Shaheena Shaheen and Demand Concrete Measures of Ensure Safety of Journalists

The news of Shaheena Shaheen’s brutal murder has greatly disturbed the community of media practitioners across the country and lays bare the structural insecurity women face in this country. Shaheena was an accomplished journalist based in Balochistan and was shot dead inside her home on September 5, 2020 in Turbat.[1] Shaheena was a host on PTV and the editor of a local magazine. She was outspoken for issues facing women, in her profession and community. Her murder is a grim reminder that women journalists face innumerable barriers and threats on the basis of their gender.

Pakistan is one of the most dangerous countries to be a journalist in, ranking 145 out of 180 countries in the 2020 World Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders.[2] The challenges that women journalists face cannot be neatly captured by the discourse of journalist security and media freedoms. Women journalists are subjected to a ‘double threat’ that is both professional and personal in nature. The overall lack of media freedoms and violence against journalists impacts women journalists, however because of their gender, women journalists face a personal threat to their bodies and well-being as well. Shaheena’s murder, reportedly by her husband, is being characterised as a ‘domestic matter’. We strongly believe that the personal is political, and for women journalists the challenges they face in their personal lives--the double shift due to inequitable distribution of care and domestic work, violence within the home, harassment in work and public places, online vitriol directed at them--impacts their work and can often put their lives in danger. Women journalists do not shed their gender when entering professional engagements, rather their gender often predominantly defines their professional life.

We also remember the brutal murder of Urooj Iqbal in November 2019 who was also shot by her husband outside her workplace for allegedly not agreeing to leave her job.[3] Despite the fact that the murder was condemned by journalists across the world,[4] her family eventually settled the matter outside of court and did not pursue a case against her husband.[5] This case shows that when the perpetrator of violence is a family member, the likelihood of settling the matter outside of court, often due to the pressure exerted on the family, is high. Since the passage of the Criminal Law (Amendment) (Offences in the name or pretext of Honour) Act, 2016, cases of honour killings can be pursued by the state under section 299 of the Pakistan Penal Code regardless of whether the family forgives the perpetrator or not, but the implementation of the law is inconsistent. The

cold-blooded murders of Urooj and Shaheena are crimes against society as a whole, they should be pursued by the state, particularly in a country where crimes against women are vastly underreported. Pakistan is ranked 151 out of 153 countries on the Global Gender Gap Index Report 2020.[1]

On September 8th, the Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Rupert Colville, has noted that the Pakistani Government take “immediate, concrete steps to ensure the protection of journalists and human rights defenders who have been subjected to threats, [...] the need for prompt, effective, thorough and impartial investigations with a view to ensuring accountability in cases of violence and killings.”[2]

These crimes take place in the backdrop of daily challenges that women journalists face. Recently, 150 women journalists issued a letter calling out the online harassment that they are subjected to and the ways in which political parties weaponise digital spaces and gender attacks to silence critical women journalists.[3] The concerns that women journalists face should be taken seriously and acted upon, by the media outlets as well as by the government.  State inaction sends a message to women in the journalist community that they are on their own and in the long term discourages young women from joining the profession.

We, the undersigned, demand that:

  1. While we are encouraged that the Ministry of Human Rights has taken notice of Shaheena’s case, we demand that there should be adequate follow-up by the state to ensure that the accused is prosecuted and a possible settlement does not impact the prosecution;
  2. The state prosecution challenges the pardon by the family in Urooj Iqbal’s case in the respective court and pursues the case with the state as a party; and
  3. The government takes immediate and urgent steps to pass the Journalist Protection Bill, with added provisions which recognise the gendered threats that women journalists face and institute accountability mechanisms to mitigate and address them.


  1. Xari Jalil, Dawn
  2. Umaima Ahmed - The News on Sunday, Network of Women Journalists for Digital Rights,
  3. Ghareeda Farooqi - News One
  4. Afia Salam - Freelancer
  5. Reema Omer - Lawyer
  6. Maryam Saeed - e Feminist Magazine 50-50
  7. Reem Khurshid - Dawn
  8. Amina Usman - Urdupoint
  9. Fahmidah Yousfi  -
  10. Rabia Noor - ARY News
  11. Najia Ashar - GNMI
  12. Nighat Dad - Network of Women Journalists for Digital Rights
  13. Shmyla Khan - Network of Women Journalists for Digital Rights
  14. Sahar Habib Ghazi, Freelance Investigative Reporters and Editors
  15. Ailia Zehra - Naya Daur
  16. Alia Chughtai -
  17. Rabbia Arshad , freelance documentary and filmmaker
  18. Lubna Jerar Naqvi Journalist
  19. Sabah Malik, Arab News
  20. Nida Mujahid Hussain, Network of Women Journalists for Digital Rights,
  21. Sabahat Khan - Freelancer - DW
  22. Maleeha Mengal - Social Media Strategist (Shirkat Gah Women’s Resource Centre)
  23. Moniba iftikhar  - Associated Press of Pakistan
  24. Naheed Akhtar - APP
  25. Tooba Masood - Freelance journalist
  26. Laiba Zainab - Sujag
  27. Sadaf Khan, Media Matters for Democracy
  28. Kiran Nazish, journalist and founder CFWIJ
  29. Katarzyna Mierzejewska, The Coalition for Women in Journalism (CFWIJ)
  30. Rabia Bugti - Dialogue Pakistan
  31. Jalila haider -  Independent Urdu
  32. Tanzila Mazhar - GTV
  33. Tehreem Azeem - Freelance journalist
  34. Marian Sharaf Joseph - Freelance Journalist
  35. Luavut Zahid - Freelance journalist
  36. Mahim Maher - SAMAA TV
  37. Maham Javaid
  38. Neelum Nawab - DIN News
  39. Zeenat Bibi - Freelance Journalist from KP
  40. Ambreen Khan - content editor Khabarwalay news
  41. Annam Lodhi, Freelancer
  42. Maryam Nawaz- Geo news
  43. Ayesha Saghir - Producer Express News
  44. Asma Sherazi - TV show Aaj News
  45. Afifa Nasar Ullah - Reporter, City News
  46. Haya Fatima Iqbal - Documentary Filmmaker
  47. Wajiha Naz Soharwardi - CPNE
  48. Sahar Saeed - Neo TV Network
  49. Kiran Rubab khan -  Reporter, 7 news
  50. Imrana Komal - Senior Multimedia Journalist, Free lines
  51. Manal Khan - Independent Writer
  52. Zoya Anwer - Independent Multimedia Journalist
  53. Shaista Hakim - Reporter khyber News Swat
  54. Hina durrani, APP
  55. Sabrina Toppa, Freelance
  56. Shafaq Saba - Freelance Journalist from KP
  57. Mehak Mudasir -  Freelance Journalist from KP
  58. Zivile Diminskyte - Engagement coordinator at CFWIJ

Supporting Bodies:

  1. Network of Women Journalists for Digital Rights (NWJDR)
  2. Women In Media Alliance Pakistan (WIMA)
  3. The Coalition for Women in Journalism (CFWIJ)
[1] Mohammad Zafar, ‘Journalist Shaheena Shaheen shot dead in Turbat’, The Express Tribune, September 5, 2020,


[1] ‘Woman journalist shot dead’, Dawn, November 26, 2019,

[1] ‘Pakistan: Woman journalist killed for not quitting job’, November 26, 2019, The Coalition for Women in Journalism,

[1] ‘عروج اقبال کا قتل: ’اپنے کام کی وجہ سے پاکستان میں قتل ہونے والی پہلی خاتون صحافی' کا مقدمہ اختتام پذیر’, BBC Urdu, August 12, 2020,

[1] “Mind the 100 Year Gap’, 2019, World Economic Forum,

[1] “Press priefing notes on Pakistan”, Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 8 September 2020,


July 1, 2020 - Comments Off on Comments on the Consultation & Objections to the Rules

Comments on the Consultation & Objections to the Rules

Soon after the Citizens Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules, 2020 (the ‘Rules’) were notified in January 2020, Digital Rights Foundation (DRF) issued a statement in which concerns regarding the Rules were expressed. It was submitted, and it is reiterated, that the Rules restrict free speech and threaten the privacy of Pakistani citizens. Subsequently, we formulated our Legal Analysis highlighting therein the jurisdictional and substantive issues with the Rules in light of constitutional principles and precedent as well as larger policy questions.

When the Ministry of Information Technology & Telecommunication (MoITT) announced the formation of a committee to consult on the Rules, DRF, along with other advocacy groups, decided to boycott the consultation until and unless the Rules were de-notified. In a statement signed by over 100 organisations and individuals in Pakistan and released on Feb 29, 2020, the consultation process was termed a ‘smokescreen’. Maintaining our position on the consultation, through these Comments, we wish to elaborate on why we endorse(d) this stance, what we believe is wrong with the consultation and how these wrongs can be fixed. This will be followed by our objections to the Rules themselves.

Comments on the Consultations:

At the outset, we at DRF, would like to affirm our conviction to strive for a free and safe internet for all, especially women and minorities. We understand that in light of a fast-growing digital economy, rapidly expanding social media and continuous increase in the number of internet users in Pakistan, ensuring a safe online environment seems to be of much interest. While online spaces should be made safe, internet regulations should not come at the expense of fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 and Pakistan’s international human rights commitments. A balance, therefore, has to be struck between fundamental rights and limitations imposed in the exercise of those rights. The only way, we believe, to achieve this balance is through meaningful consultations done with the stakeholders and the civil society in good faith.

The drafting process of the Rules, however, has been exclusionary and secretive from the start. It began with a complete lack of public engagement when the Rules were notified in February 2020- so much so that the Rules only became public knowledge after their notification. Given the serious and wide-ranging implications of the Rules, caution on the Government’s part and sustained collaboration with civil society was needed. Instead, the unexpected and sudden notification of the Rules caused alarm to nearly all stakeholders, including industry actors who issued a sharp rebuke of the Rules. It is respectfully submitted, that such practices do not resonate with the principles of ‘good faith.’

Almost immediately after the notification, the Rules drew sharp criticism locally and internationally. As a result, the Ministry of Information Technology & Telecommunication (MoITT) announced the formation of a committee to begin consultation on the Citizens Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules 2020. However, a consultation at the tail-end of the drafting process will do little good. Public participation before and during the official law-making process is far more significant than any end-phase activity and will be an eye-wash rather than a meaningful process.

We are concerned with not only the content of the regulations but also with how that content is to be agreed upon. The consultations, which are a reaction to the public outcry, fail to address either of the two. Experience shows that when people perceive a consultation to be insincere, they lose trust not only in the process but in the resulting regulations as well. Therefore, we urge the Federal Government to withdraw the existing Rules (a mere suspension of implementation of Rules is insufficient) through the same process by which they were notified. Any future Rules need to be co-created with meaningful participation of civil society from the start. Without a withdrawal of the Rules, the ‘reactionary’ consultations would be seen as a manipulation of the process to deflect criticism and not a genuine exercise to seek input. Without a withdrawal, it is unlikely the Rules would gain sufficient popularity or legitimacy. Once the necessary steps for withdrawal of notification have been taken, we request the government to issue an official statement mentioning therein that the legal status of the Rules is nothing more than a ‘proposed draft.’ This would mean that anything and everything in the Rules is open for discussion. This would not only demonstrate ‘good faith’ on the government’s part but also show its respect for freedom and democracy.

Even otherwise, it should be noted that the present consultation falls short of its desired purpose in as much as it seeks input with respect to the Rules only. The Preamble of the ‘Consultation Framework,’ posted on PTA’s website lays down the purpose of the consultation as follows: “in order to protect the citizens of Pakistan from the adverse effects of online unlawful content…” It is submitted that to make the internet ‘safe’ and to ‘protect’ the citizens would require more than regulations alone. The government should initiate a series of studies to ascertain other methods as well to effectively tackle online harms. Self-regulatory mechanisms for social media companies, educating users on safety and protective tools with respect to the internet and capacity-building of law-enforcement agencies to deal with cyber-crimes are some of the options that must be explored if the objective is to protect citizens from online unlawful content. These steps become all the more significant because online threats and harmful content continue to evolve. Additionally, such measures will reduce the burden on the regulators and provide a low-cost remedy to the users. It is reiterated that to effectively address this daunting task, a joint effort between the Government, civil society, law enforcement agencies as well as all social media companies is required.

To that end, a participatory, transparent and inclusive consultative process is needed. While this will help secure greater legitimacy and support for the Rules, at the same time, it can transform the relationship between citizens and their government. First and foremost, the presence of all stakeholders should be ensured. The Government should, in particular, identify those groups and communities that are most at risk and secure their representation in the consultation(s). If transparency and inclusiveness require the presence of all key stakeholders at the table, consensus demands that all voices be heard and considered. Therefore, we request that there should be mechanisms to ensure that the views and concerns of stakeholders are being seriously considered and that compromises are not necessarily based on majority positions.

Given the wide-ranging and serious implications of the Rules, it is necessary that the citizens’ groups and the society at large be kept informed at all stages of drafting these regulations. The drafters should also explain to the people why they have produced the text they have: what was the need for it and what factors they considered, what compromises they struck with the negotiators and why, and how they reached agreements on the final text.

Finally, input from the civil society and stakeholders should be sought to define words and certain phrases of the Rules that create penal offences. Many of the definitions and terms in the Rules, (which will be discussed shortly), are either loosely defined or lack clarity. It is suggested that discussions be held to determine clear meanings of such terms.

Objections to the Rules:
1: The Rules exceed the scope of its Parent Acts:

The Rules have been notified under provisions of the Pakistan Telecommunication (Re-organisation) Act, 1996 (PTRA) and the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act (PECA) 2016 (hereinafter collectively referred to as the ‘Parent Acts’). The feedback form on the PTA website notes that the Rules are formulated “exercising statutory powers under PECA section 37 sub-section 2.” Under the Rules, the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) is the designated Authority.

It is submitted that the scope and scale of action defined in the Rules go beyond the mandate given under the Parent Acts. The government is reminded that rules cannot impose or create new restrictions that are beyond the scope of the Parent Act(s).

It is observed that Rule 3 establishes the office of a National Coordinator and consolidates (through delegation) the powers granted to the Authority under PECA and PTRA to control online regulation. While we understand that Section 9 of PTRA allows delegation of powers, no concept of delegation of powers exists under PECA. Therefore, to pass on the powers contained in PECA to any third body is a violation of the said Act. Even under PTRA, powers can only be delegated to the chairman/chairperson, member or any other officer of PTA (re: Section 9), in which case, the autonomy and independence of the National Coordinator would remain questionable.

Without conceding that powers under PECA can be delegated to the National Coordinator, it is still submitted that Rule 7 goes beyond the scope of PECA (and also violates Article 19 of the Constitution which will be discussed later). Section 37(1) of PECA grants power to the Authority to “remove or block or issue directions for removal or blocking of access to an information through any information system....” While Section 37(1) confers limited powers to only remove or block access to an information, the powers to remove or block the whole information system or social media platform (conferred upon the National Coordinator by virtue of Rule 7) is a clear case of excessive delegation.

Further, the Rules require social media companies to deploy proactive mechanisms to ensure prevention of live streaming of fake news (Rule 4) and to remove, suspend or disable accounts or online content that spread fake news (Rule 5). Rule 5(f) also obligates a social media company that “if communicated by the Authority that online content is false, put a note to that effect along with the online content”. It is submitted that the powers to legislate on topics like fake news and misinformation are not granted under the Parent Acts. It is also unknown where the wide powers granted to the National Coordinator under Rule 3(2) to advise the Provincial and Federal Governments, issue directions to departments, authorities and agencies and to summon official representatives of social media companies stem from. These aforementioned Rules are, therefore, ultra vires the provisions of the Parent Acts.

  • Remove the body of the National Coordinator and the powers it wrongly assumed through PECA (re: the power to block online systems (rule 7)).
  • If any such power is to be conferred, then limit that power to removal or suspension of an information on any information system as opposed to the power to block the entire online system.
  • Establish a criteria for the selection and accountability of National Coordinator.
  • Ensure autonomy and independence of the National Coordinator.
  • Introduce mechanisms, through introduction of a public database or directory, to ensure transparency from any authority tasked with regulation and removal of content on the content removed and the reasons for such removal.
  • Omit provisions regulating ‘fake news’ as they go beyond the scope of Parent Acts.
  • Omit Rule 5(f) i.e. obligation to issue fake news correction, as it goes beyond the scope of the Parent Acts. Alternatively, social media companies should be urged to present ‘fact checks’ to any false information.
  • Exclude from the powers of the National Coordinator the ability to advise the Provincial and Federal Governments, issue directions to departments, authorities and agencies and to summon official representatives of social media companies, contained in Rule 3(2), as they go beyond the scope of the Parent Acts.
2: Arbitrary Powers:

It is observed that the Rules have granted arbitrary and discretionary powers to the National Coordinator and, at the same time, have failed to provide any mechanisms against the misuse of these powers.

Rule 4 obligates a social media company to remove, suspend or disable access to any online content within twenty-four hours, and in emergency situations within six hours, after being intimated by the Authority that any particular online content is in contravention of any provision of the Act, or any other law, rule, regulation or instruction of the National Coordinator. An ‘emergency situation’ is also to be exclusively determined by this office. On interpretation or permissibility of any online content, as per Rule 4 (2), the opinion of the National Coordinator is to take precedence over any community standards and rules or guidelines devised by the social media company.

It is submitted that this grants unprecedented censorship powers to a newly appointed National Coordinator which has the sole discretion to determine what constitutes ‘objectionable’ content. These are extremely vague and arbitrary powers and the Rules fail to provide any checks and balances to ensure that such requests will be used in a just manner. It is trite law that a restriction on freedom of speech will be unreasonable if the law imposing the restriction has not provided any safeguards against arbitrary exercise of power. However, Rule 4 encourages arbitrary and random acts and bestows upon the National Coordinator unfettered discretion to regulate online content instead of even remotely attempting to provide any safeguards against abuse of power. Moreover, the power granted under Rule 5 to the National Coordinator to monitor falsehood of any online content adds to the unfettered powers of the National Coordinator. It is concerning that while the National Coordinator has been granted extensive powers, including quasi-judicial and legislative powers to determine what constitutes online harm, the qualifications, accountability, and selection procedure of the National Coordinator remains unclear. This will have a chilling effect on the content removal process as social media companies will rush content regulation decisions to comply with the restrictive time limit, rushing on particularly complicated cases of free speech that require deliberation and legal opinions. Furthermore, smaller social media companies, which do not have the resources and automated regulation capacities that big tech companies such as Facebook or Google possess, will be disproportionately burdened with urgent content removal instructions.

Further, Rule 6 requires a social media company to provide to the Investigation Agency any information, data, content or sub-content contained in any information system owned, managed or run by the respective social media company. It is unclear if the Investigating Agency is required to go through any legal or judicial procedure to make such a request or not and whether it is required to notify or report to a court on seizure of any such information. Given the current PECA regulations, there is still a legal process through which information or data of private users can be requested. This Rule, however, totally negates the current process and gives the National Coordinator sweeping powers to monitor online traffic. The power under Rule 6 exceeds the ambit of section 37 and runs parallel to data request procedures established with social media companies.

  • Re-consider the 24 hrs time limit for content removal. It would be unreasonable to impose such a strict timeline especially for content that relates to private wrongs/disputes such as defamation and complicated cases of free speech.
  • Insert a “Stop the Clock” provision by listing out a set of criteria (such as seeking clarifications, technical infeasibility, etc.) under which the time limit would cease to apply to allow for due process and fair play in enforcing such requests.
  • Formulate clear and predetermined rules and procedures for investigations, seizures, collection and sharing of data.
  • Rule 4 should be amended and the Authority tasked with removal requests be required to give ‘cogent reasons for removal’ along with every content removal request. If those reasons are not satisfactory, the social media company should have the right to seek further clarifications.
  • National Coordinator should not be the sole authority to determine what constitutes ‘objectionable’ online content; neither can this be left open for the National Coordinator to decide from time to time through its ‘instructions’.
  • Remove the powers to request, obtain and provide data to Investigating Agencies.
3: vague Definitions:

It is an established law that “the language of the statute, and, in particular, a statute creating an offence, must be precise, definite and sufficiently objective so as to guard against an arbitrary and capricious action on part of the state functionaries.” Precise definitions are also important so that social media companies may regulate their conduct accordingly.

A fundamental flaw within these Rules is its vague, overly broad and extremely subjective definitions. For example, extremism (Rule 2(d)) is defined as ‘violent, vocal or active opposition to fundamental values of the state of Pakistan including...” It does not, however, define what constitutes or can be referred to as fundamental values of the state of Pakistan. Given the massive volume of content shared online, platforms may feel obliged to take a ‘better safe than sorry’ approach –which in this case would mean ‘take downfirst, ask questions later (or never).’ This threatens not only to impede legitimate operation of (and innovation in) services, but also to incentivize the removal of legitimate content. Moreover, an honest criticism or a fair comment made regarding the Federal Government, or any other state institution, runs the risk of being seen as ‘opposition,’ as this word also lacks clarity.

Similarly, while social media companies are required to ‘take due cognizance of the religious, cultural, ethnic and national security sensitivities of Pakistan’ (Rule 4(3)), the Rules fail to elaborate on these terms. Further, ‘fake news’ (Rule 4(4) & Rule 5(e)) has not been defined which adds to the ambiguity of the Rules. It is submitted that vague laws weaken the rule of law because they enable selective prosecution and interpretation, and arbitrary decision-making.

Rule 4(4) obligates a social media company to deploy proactive mechanisms to ensure prevention of live streaming of any content with regards to, amongst other things, ‘hate speech’ and ‘defamation.’ It should be noted that ‘hate speech’ and ‘defamation’ are both defined and considered as offences under PECA as well as the Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 (‘PPC’). It is also posited that determination of both these offences require a thorough investigation and a trial under both of these laws. It is submitted that if a trial and investigation is necessary to determine these offences then it would be nearly impossible for social media companies to ‘proactively’ prevent their live streaming. Additionally, social media companies already take down such material based on their community guidelines which cover areas such as public safety, hate speech and terrorist content. For instance, during the Christchurch terrorist attack, while Facebook was unable to take down the livestream as it was happening, AI technology and community guidelines were used to remove all instances of the video from the platform within hours of the incident. However, the Rules propose an unnecessary burden on social media companies and if any content is hastily removed as being hateful or defamatory, without a proper determination or investigation, then not only would such removal implicate the person who produced or transmitted such content (given these are penal offences under PECA & PPC) but also condemn them unheard. Even otherwise, hate speech and defamation are entirely contextual determinations, where the illegality of material is dependent on its impact. Impact on viewers is impossible for an automated system to assess, particularly before or during the material is being shared.

It is also noted that Rule 4(4) is in conflict with Section 38(5) of PECA, which expressly rejects imposition of any obligation on intermediaries or service providers to proactively monitor or filter material or content hosted, transmitted or made available on their platforms.

  • It is suggested that discussions be held amongst all stakeholders to determine clear and precise meanings of the following terms:
    • Extremism
    • Fundamental Values of the State of Pakistan
    • Religious, cultural and ethical sensitivities of Pakistan
    • National Security
    • Fake News
    • National Security
  • Use alternate methods of countering hateful, extremist and speech through investment in independent fact-checking bodies, funds for organisations developing counter-speech against organisations tackling online speech against women, gender, religious and ethnic minorities.
  • Formulate clear components of ‘active or vocal opposition’ to ensure it cannot be used to silence dissenting opinions.
  • Omit Rule 4(4) as it violates Section 38 (5) of PECA.
  • Content constituting ‘hate speech’ and ‘defamation’ should not be removed without a proper investigation.
4: Violates and Unreasonably restricts Fundamental Rights:

The Rules, as they stand, pose a serious danger to fundamental rights in the country. In particular, the breadth of the Rules’s restrictions, and the intrusive requirements that they place on social media platforms, would severely threaten online freedom of expression, right to privacy and information.

It is submitted that Rule 4 is a blatant violation of Article 19 (freedom of speech, etc.) of the Constitution. It exceeds the boundaries of permissible restrictions within the meaning of Article 19, lacks the necessary attributes of reasonableness and is extremely vague in nature. Article 19 states that restrictions on freedom of expression must be “reasonable” under the circumstances, and must be in aid of one of the legitimate state interests stated therein (“in the interests of the glory of Islam, integrity, security, or defence of Pakistan…”). The Rules, however, require all social media companies to remove or block online content if it is, among other things, in “contravention of instructions of the National Coordinator.” It is to be noted that deletion of data on the instructions of the National Coordinator does not fall under the permissible restrictions of Article 19 as it is an arbitrary criteria for the restriction of fundamental rights. Furthermore, a restriction on freedom of speech may only be placed in accordance with ‘law’ and an instruction passed by the National Coordinator does not qualify as law within the meaning of Article 19.

It must also be noted that Rule 7 (Blocking of Online System) is a violation of Article 19 of the Constitution which only provides the power to impose reasonable ‘restrictions’ on free speech in accordance with law. It is submitted that in today’s digital world, online systems allow individuals to obtain information, form, express and exchange ideas and are mediums through which people express their speech. Hence, entirely blocking an online system would be tantamount to blocking speech itself. The power to ‘block’ cannot be read under, inferred from, or assumed to be a part of the power to ‘restrict’ free speech. It was held, in Civil Aviation Authority Case, that “the predominant meanings of the said words (restrict and restriction) do not admit total prohibition. They connote the imposition of limitations of the bounds within which one can act...” Therefore, while Article 19 allows imposition of ‘restrictions’ on free speech, the power to ‘block’ an information system entirely exceeds the boundaries of permissible limitations under it and is a disproportionate method of achieving the goal of removing harmful content on the internet – rendering Rule 7 inconsistent with the Constitution as well (previously it was discussed Rule 7 goes beyond the scope of the Section 37 (1) of PECA).

As has already been discussed above, a restriction on freedom of speech will be unreasonable if the law imposing the restriction has not provided any safeguards against arbitrary exercise of power. Rule 4 violates this principle by encouraging arbitrary and random acts and bestows upon the National Coordinator unfettered discretion to regulate online content without providing any safeguards against abuse of power. The Rules do not formulate sufficient safeguards to ensure that the power extended to the National Coordinator would be exercised in a fair, just, and transparent manner. The power to declare any online content as ‘harmful’ and to search and seize data without the measures for questioning the authority concerns the state of privacy and free speech of the companies and that of the people.

The fact that the government has asked social media companies to provide all and any kind of user information or data in a ‘decrypted, readable and comprehensible format’, including private data shared through messaging applications like WhatsApp (Rule 6), and that too without defining any mechanisms for gaining access to data of anyone being investigated, just shows that it is neither concerned with the due procedure of the law nor is it concerned with the potential violations of citizens right to privacy.

Finally, Rule 5 obligates social media companies to put a note along-with any online content that is considered or interpreted to be ‘false’ by the National Coordinator. Not only does this provision add to the unfettered powers of the National Coordinator to be exercised arbitrarily but also makes the Coordinator in-charge of policing truth. This violates the principles of freely forming an ‘opinion’ (a right read under Article 19) as the National Coordinator now decides, or dictates, what is true and what is false.

  • Amend Rule 4 and exclude from it the words “the instructions of the National Coordinator” as the same violates Article 19 of the Constitution.
  • Omit Rule 7 as it violates Article 19 and does not fall under the ‘reasonable restrictions’ allowed under the Constitution.
  • Formulate rules and procedures for investigations, seizures and collection of data which are in line with due process safeguards.
  • Rule 4 should be amended to require the regulatory body to give ‘cogent reasons for removal’ along with every content removal request. If those reasons are not satisfactory, the social media company should have the right to seek further clarifications.
  • The authority tasked with content removal should not be the sole authority to determine what constitutes ‘objectionable’ online content; neither should it be left open for the authority to decide from time to time through its ‘instructions’.
5: Data Localisation:

Rule 5 obligates social media companies to register with the PTA within three months of coming into force of these Rules. It requires a social media company to establish a permanent registered office in Pakistan with a physical address located in Islamabad and to appoint a focal person based in Pakistan for coordination with the National Coordinator.

It is submitted that the requirement for registering with PTA and establishing a permanent registered office in Pakistan, before these companies can be granted permission to be viewed and/or provide services in Pakistan, is a move towards “data localisation”and challenges the borderless nature of the internet - a feature that is intrinsic to the internet itself. Forcing businesses to create a local presence is outside the norms of global business practice and can potentially force international social media companies to exit the country rather than invest further in Pakistan. It is unreasonable to expect social media companies to set up infrastructure in the country when the nature of the internet allows for it to be easily administered remotely. With an increase in compliance costs that come with incorporation of a company in Pakistan, companies across the globe including start-ups may have to reconsider serving users in Pakistan. Consequently, users in Pakistan including the local private sector may not be able to avail a variety of services required for carrying out day-to-day communication, online transactions, and trade/business related tasks. Many businesses and organisations across Pakistan rely on the services provided by social media companies, particularly during the Covid-19 pandemic when reliance on the internet has increased substantially, and will thus have an indirect impact on the economy as well. The proposed Rules requiring local incorporation and physical offices will also have a huge repercussion on taxation, foreign direct investment and other legal perspectives along with negatively impacting economic growth.

To effectively defend against cybercrimes and threats, companies protect user data and other critical information via a very small network of highly secure regional and global data centers staffed with uniquely skilled experts who are in scarce supply globally. These centers are equipped with advanced IT infrastructure that provides reliable and secure round-the-clock service. The clustering of highly-qualified staff and advanced equipment is a critical factor in the ability of institutions to safeguard data from increasingly sophisticated cyber-attacks.

Mandating the creation of a local data center will harm cybersecurity in Pakistan by:

  • Creating additional entry points into IT systems for cyber criminals.
  • Reducing the quality of cybersecurity in all facilities around the world by spreading cybersecurity resources (both people and systems) too thin.
  • Forcing companies to disconnect systems and/or reduce services.
  • Fragmenting the internet and impeding global coordination of cyber defense activities, which can only be achieved efficiently and at scale when and where the free flow of data is guaranteed.

Preventing the free flow of data:

  • Creates artificial barriers to information-sharing and hinders global communication;
  • Makes connectivity less affordable for people and businesses at a time when reducing connectivity costs is essential to expanding economic opportunity in Pakistan, boosting the digital economy and creating additional wealth;
  • Undermines the viability and dependability of cloud-based services in a range of business sectors that are essential for a modern digital economy; and
  • Slows GDP growth, stifles innovation, and lowers the quality of services available to domestic consumers and businesses.

The global nature of the Internet has democratized information which is available to anyone, anywhere around the world in an infinite variety of forms. The economies of scale achieved through globally located infrastructure have contributed to the affordability of services on the Internet, where several prominent services are available for free. Companies are able to provide these services to users even in markets that may not be financially sustainable as they don't have to incur additional cost of setting-up and running local offices and legal entities in each country where they offer services. Therefore, these Rules will harm consumer experience on the open internet, increasing costs to an extent that offering services/technologies to consumers in Pakistan becomes financially unviable.

  1. Scrap Rule 5 and abandon the model of data localisation as it discourages business and weakens data security of servers;
  2. Develop transparent and legally-compliant data request and content removal mechanisms with social media companies as an alternative to the model proposed in Rule 5.
Concluding Remarks:

We have discussed that the current consultations lack the essentials of ‘good faith’ which demands reexamination of the entire framework. We have also discussed that the Rules exceed the scope of Parent Acts, accord arbitrary powers to the National Coordinator, uses vague definitions and unreasonably restricts fundamental rights which makes them liable to be struck down. In light of the above, we call upon the government to immediately withdraw the Rules and initiate the consultation process from scratch. The renewed consultation should premise around tackling ‘online harm’ instead of a discussion on the Rules alone. Consensus should be reached on the best ways to tackle online harms. This would require comprehensive planning, transparent and meaningful consultations with stakeholders and participation of the civil society. Until this is done, Digital Rights Foundation will disassociate itself from any government initiatives that are seen as ingenuine efforts to deflect criticism.


April 17, 2020 - Comments Off on Joint statement on safety of journalists and access to information during the COVID-19 crisis

Joint statement on safety of journalists and access to information during the COVID-19 crisis

In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the undersigned chairs and members of the Groups of Friends on the Safety/Protection of Journalists are calling on all states to protect journalists’ and media workers’ safety, safeguard a free and independent media and ensure unhindered access to information, both online and offline.

Free, independent and pluralistic media play an indispensable role in informing the public during the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Everyone has the right to comprehensible, accessible, timely and reliable information concerning the nature and level of the threat COVID-19 poses to their health, allowing them to follow evidence-based guidance on how to stay safe.

Public health needs public trust. Trust is crucial to achieving adequate support for and compliance by the general public with efforts by governments to help curb the spread of the virus.

Trust cannot be achieved without transparency and accountability provided and guaranteed by a free media. Conversely, free and independent media has an important role in pushing back against disinformation by providing access to accurate, fact-based and verified information. In this context, it is essential that governments and private entities address disinformation, foremost, by providing reliable information themselves.

We see with great concern an increase in restricting measures taken by States that disproportionately limit the right to freedom of expression and impede journalists and media workers from reporting on the COVID-19 crisis. Arrests, persecution and harassment against journalists and media workers, especially women, as well as smear campaigns to discredit their work and the expulsion of foreign journalists due to their COVID-19 coverage or the criminalisation of alleged misinformation, online and offline, may constitute human rights violations. There should be no place for impunity in democratic societies.

Internet access is essential to ensuring that information reaches those affected by the virus. Governments should end any internet shutdowns, ensure the broadest possible access to internet services, and take steps to bridge digital divides, including the gender gap.

Furthermore, journalists and media workers are subjected to significant physical and psychological risk by being at the frontline reporting on the COVID-19 crisis. They are working under extremely challenging conditions, partly because of lack of sanitary precautions and training, but also because of psychological stress linked to the rapidly evolving situation. Declarations of state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic should not be used as a basis to limit freedom of expression and constrain the working environment of journalists and media workers. It is crucial for societies and the international community as a whole that governments preserve a free, safe and enabling environment for journalists and media workers and ensure that they can report on COVID-19 and inform about responses and consequences without undue interference.

We welcome a range of initiatives aimed at supporting journalists’ and media workers’ safety in the light of COVID-19 undertaken by international organisations, such as UNESCO and civil society, media associations as well as social media companies. Projects to strengthen media in developing countries in responding to the COVID-19 crisis, such as those undertaken by the UNESCO International Programme for the Development of Communication, are particularly welcome.

We also welcome the joint statement of 19 March published by David Kaye, UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression; Harlem Désir, OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media; and Edison Lanza, Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights as well as the press release and statements made by Moez Chakchouk, UNESCO Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information, published on 27 March.

We agree with their call that governments must be making exceptional efforts to protect the work of journalists at a moment of public health emergency and we remain fully committed to protecting media freedom and safety of journalists at this critical time.

Signed by Austria, France, Greece, Lithuania and Sweden as the chairs and co-chairs, respectively, of the Groups of Friends on the Safety of Journalists in New York, Geneva, Vienna (OSCE) and Paris


(List of co-signatories, members in any of the four Groups of Friends on the Safety of Journalists at UNESCO in Paris, the United Nations in New York and Geneva and the OSCE in Vienna, in alphabetical order)

Albania                                                                       Lebanon
Argentina                                                                   Lithuania
Australia                                                                     Luxembourg
Austria                                                                        Montenegro
Brazil                                                                           Morocco
Bulgaria                                                                      The Netherlands
Canada                                                                        Nigeria
Cape                                                                            Norway
Verde                                                                           Paraguay
Chile                                                                             Poland
Costa                                                                            Qatar
Rica                                                                               Republic of Korea
Denmark                                                                      Senegal
Estonia                                                                          Slovenia
Finland                                                                          Sweden
France                                                                           Switzerland
Germany                                                                       Tunisia
Ghana                                                                            United Kingdom
Greece                                                                           United States
Japan                                                                              Uruguay


March 19, 2020 - Comments Off on Launch of reporting portal to combat online child sexual abuse material in Pakistan

Launch of reporting portal to combat online child sexual abuse material in Pakistan


Digital Rights Foundation (DRF) in collaboration with the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) and the Global Fund to End Violence Against Children are launching a portal to combat children’s online safety in Pakistan.

The IWF is the UK-based charity responsible for finding and removing online child sexual abuse material. The new portal will allow people in Pakistan to anonymously report child sexual abuse material in three different languages – English, Urdu, and Pashto. The reports will then be assessed by trained IWF analysts in the UK. The portal will be the 33rd portal set up around the world to fight the spread of online child sexual abuse material.

The launch had been due to take place in Pakistan and would have been attended by representatives from the British High Commission in Pakistan, as well as representatives from the IWF. However, following the cancellation of flights and public gatherings because of the virus, it was decided a “virtual” launch would be the best solution.

The IWF’s Chief Executive Susie Hargreaves said: “We have decided that, despite the strain that the current pandemic is putting on business, resources and life in general, it is still important to give global citizens a reporting options for child sexual abuse material online and not to delay.

“Therefore, we have opted to proceed with the launch, which shall be completely virtual. The in-person launch event was postponed, but we may hold a virtual meeting of delegates from Pakistan via Zoom instead.”

The IWF’s International Development Manager Jenny Thornton had been preparing to travel to Islamabad to attend the launch. She said that, despite the travel bans, there must be no delaying what could be a “significant” move for children’s online safety.

Ms Thornton said: “Pakistan is the fifth biggest country in the world by population, and 35% of their people are children.

“As a country, it has the world’s second highest number of children who are not in school, and that is estimated at 22.8 million children under 16 not going to school. We are talking about a lot of kids here, so the potential for this portal to keep more children safe online around the world is significant.”

Nighat Dad, Executive Direct of DRF said: "In Pakistan, child sexual abuse was considered as a taboo for far too long, making any serious and concerted action against it very difficult.

“However in the last five years, high profile cases have generated public outrage and support for action against these issues.

“Online Child Sexual Abuse currently is criminalised under the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act, through the offence of child pornography, however the country currently lacks the infrastructure to proactively takedown material relating to Online Child Sexual Abuse.

“This portal seeks to bridge that gap by creating a cross-platform, technological solution for reporting material within Pakistan to protect survivors of sexual abuse from getting re-traumatised and help make the internet safer for children and young adults."

The new portal is funded by the Global Fund to End Violence Against Children. It can be found at

For more information log on:


For more information contact:

Shmyla Khan

Project Manager,

March 5, 2020 - Comments Off on WEF and DRF conducted the Mobilizing and Inspiring Action with Technology 2020

WEF and DRF conducted the Mobilizing and Inspiring Action with Technology 2020

Digital Rights Foundation and the World Economic Forum in collaboration with institutional partners hosted a first of its kind event in Kathmandu from February 19-21, 2020. This event brought together participants from across South Asia and the rest of the world to discuss the implications of digital and emerging technologies for organizations promoting advocacy and mobilizing people-powered action in the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Furthermore, topics like digital rights, civic tech, transparency and governance also came under debate.

This event aimed to facilitate shared learning across regional contexts on how increasingly digitized world is moving towards shifting behaviours, creating new opportunities and the deepening challenges for the communities and stakeholders that advocates work with. The participants had an opportunity to discuss the challenges for strategic cross-sector alliances within the development sector. The Fourth Industrial Revolution was widely discussed, with attendees discussing the changes and the future threat it brings with it.

The panels ranged from focusing on Advocacy in Context: Regional Perspectives on Technology, Advocacy and People-powered movement which took a look at relevant tools and strategies that advocates are employing across different regional contexts in an increasing digital world. Additionally Nighat Dad moderated a panel titled,  Accelerating Digital Rights Conversations Beyond South Asia and Beyond, which focused on the current state of digital rights in South Asia and opportunities to deepen and accelerate the conversation across the region and within a global context.

Nighat Dad, Executive Director of DRF noted that, ‘The fourth industrial revolution brings with it various opportunities, however, it also poses different threats to different communities especially in the context of the Global South. It is important to bring digital rights groups from South Asia together to discuss the dynamics and landscapes around transparency, digital rights and advocacy so that it becomes a strong front like the Global North. Through this workshop, we were able to bring together different actors from South Asia and discuss in detail how collaborations within the community are important.’

Digital Rights Foundation is a registered research-based advocacy non-governmental organization in Pakistan. Founded by Nighat Dad in 2012, DRF focuses on ICTs to support human rights, inclusiveness, democratic processes, and digital governance. DRF works on issues of online free speech, privacy, data protection and online violence against women.

Contact Person:

Nighat Dad 

[email protected] 



On February 28, 2020, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting through PR No. 267 announced the formation of a committee to begin consultation on the Citizens Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules 2020. This follows the Prime Minister’s announcement to review the Rules and consult stakeholders, after the Rules drew sharp criticism locally and internationally. However, the government refuses to clarify the legal status of the Rules without which any consultation is merely token to deflect criticism and not a genuine exercise to seek input.

While Cabinet approval for the Rules remains in place, there can be no engagement or consultation. This only shows the government’s intent to use the consultation as a smokescreen while intending to implement and enforce the Rules already prepared and approved. The Rules as they exist, merit no discussion at all. How citizens are to be protected requires an open and informed discussion which takes into account existing procedures, laws as well as how they have been applied. The abuse of authority by the PTA and government, especially their misuse of the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act (PECA) 2016 to stifle dissent and Section 37 of PECA in particular to report and restrict political speech, will have to be addressed first.

We also call upon tech companies to unequivocally state the terms of their engagement with the government on the Rules. Too often, citizens and end users become collateral in agreements governments and companies reach in breach of their rights, and we wish to remind them their actions will be scrutinized against adherence to global best practices and international principles to protect expression and privacy.

For the benefit of public discourse, we will continue to make public information that illustrates sensible ways of protecting citizens as well as information from comparative jurisdictions, but will not participate in any process initiated to deflect criticism and seeks to draw legitimacy to carry forth the implementation of the Rules that were devised in bad faith.

We demand the following:

– The Rules must be withdrawn by the Federal Cabinet and the decision, as documented through the process, be made public before any consultation is held

– Civil society has been categorical that Section 37 of PECA must be repealed. The consultation must begin by addressing the overbroad and arbitrary nature of Section 37 under which these Rules have been issued and review the abuse of power by the PTA and government in carrying out its functions since the enactment of PECA.

– The consultation must follow an open and transparent process. The committee must make public the agenda, process it intends to follow and clear timelines. All input provided should be minuted and put together in a report form to be disseminated for public feedback with a specified timeline which is reasonable, before which no Rules should be approved or enforced.

To see the list of signatories, view document here.

February 13, 2020 - Comments Off on DRF Condemns Citizen’s Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules 2020 as an Affront on Online Freedoms

DRF Condemns Citizen’s Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules 2020 as an Affront on Online Freedoms

Digital Rights Foundation strongly condemns the recent ‘Citizen Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules 2020’ notified by the Ministry of Information Technology. Digital Rights Foundation raises strong objections to the Rules as they severely restrict the freedom of expression and privacy of Pakistani citizens in online spaces. 

These Rules directly address social media companies and require them to register and locate offices inside Pakistan, particularly establish database servers in the country signaling a definitive move towards data localisation. Additionally, the rules establish a ‘National Coordinator’ to engage with the social media companies on behalf of the Federal Government. The main objective of the Rules, it seems, is to exercise greater control over digital content of Pakistani users of these platforms and social media companies. If these companies do not abide by the requests of the National Coordinator, they will face heavy fines or a total shutdown of their platforms within Pakistan. 

Moreover, social media companies are instructed to “establish one or more database servers in Pakistan within twelve months of the date of publication of these Rules to record and store data and online content, within the territorial boundaries of Pakistan for citizen data privacy” (Section 5(d)). While this is ostensibly being done to protect citizen’s data privacy, it is clear that these Rules have the potential to be used to censor the last remaining frontier of information i.e. online media and make invasions into the personal data of Pakistanis on social media.

Rationale For Condemnation 

The Citizens Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules, 2020, chalk out the government’s plan to centralise control of digital information and expression through one central ‘National Coordinator.’ For the following reasons, we reject these rules and believe they should be revoked:

The Rules are a blatant violation of Article 19 (freedom of speech and information) of the Constitution. They exceed the boundaries of permissible restrictions within the meaning of Article 19 and lack the necessary attributes of reasonableness. While Article 19 permits ‘reasonable restrictions’ on freedom of speech only in the “interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defense of Pakistan or any part thereof, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court,” the Rules require all social media companies to remove or block online content if it is, among other things, in “contravention of instructions of the National Coordinator” (Section 4). As is clear from a plain reading of Article 19, ‘contravention of instructions of the National Coordinator’ is not a purpose for which a restriction on freedom of speech may be placed and cannot be used as a benchmark to undermine fundamental rights. 

This allows the National Coordinator to regulate online content purely on its whims and wishes. Further, the Rules require Social Media Companies to remove, suspend or disable any news article that is considered, or interpreted to be, ‘fake’ by the National Coordinator; bestowing upon it unchecked powers to be exercised at convenience.

Additionally, we feel that the additional powers of the Rules go beyond the scope of the parent Acts, i.e. Pakistan Telecommunication (Re-organization) Act, 1996 and the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016. The PTA cannot delegate powers to another authority such as the National Coordinator beyond the powers that were vested in it through the parent legislation.

Violation of Right to Privacy: 

These Rules further weaken the state of privacy in the country: Data privacy is a pre-existing issue in the country, however, given current Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act regulations, there is still a legal process through which information or data on private users can be requested. The Rules presented by the Ministry of IT completely negate the current process, giving the government total access over data and information. Section 6 of the Rules obligates social media companies to provide any information, data, content or sub-content requested by the Investigation Agency. Astonishingly, the agency is not required to go through any legal or judicial procedure to make such a request. More worrying  is the fact that the information/data requested does not necessarily have to be in connection with, or related to, any offence laid out under the Rules rather can be any information the Investigation Agency may wish to pry into. Apart from violating the fundamental right to privacy, the Rules further threaten the state of privacy of private citizens within Pakistan. Furthermore, it is alarming that section 6 requires social media companies to provide information in “decrypted, readable and comprehensible format or plain version”, violating the reasonable expectation of privacy that citizens have when using social media and messaging applications.

Dire Consequences 

The Digital Economy will be massively affected: 

The most obvious effect of these rules will be on the digital ecosystem of Pakistan. These rules are incredibly restrictive and place immense powers in the hands of a ‘National Coordinator’. Such an atmosphere will prove non-conducive for social media companies to move to Pakistan as well as restrict the growth of Pakistan’s domestic digital economy. 

Social media has emerged as the backbone of many modern businesses, and has indeed created a new type of digital market. Many small businesses, women entrepreneurs and content creators use social media as a medium for their business. The imposition of such harsh rules will therefore not only affect individuals but also local startups and e-commerce establishments. 

Pakistan’s appeal as an investment opportunity will diminish: 

The requirement for registering with the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (Section 5) and to establish a permanent registered office in Pakistan is a move towards “data localisation,” that will require every company to open an office in Pakistan before they can be granted permission to be viewed and/or create content in Pakistan. This challenges the borderless nature of the internet - a feature that is intrinsic to the internet itself. Even otherwise, forcing businesses to create a local presence is outside normal global business practice and creates a disincentive to invest within Pakistan. Such a regulation will force international social media companies to exit the country rather than invest further in Pakistan. It is unreasonable to expect companies to set up infrastructure in the country as per the Harm Rules when the nature of the internet allows for it to be easily administered remotely.

Society will begin to self-censor and important discourse will decrease: 

These Rules cannot be looked at in isolation. In a society that is faced with such massive impediments to free speech, the likely reaction that citizens end up having is to self censor themselves. People will restrict the discussions they take part in online and will also be less likely to partake in useful and productive conversations around governance and law. This will sever an important tie between the government and its people, thereby creating a massive divide between the two entities; something a democracy such as ours cannot afford. 

February 11, 2020 - Comments Off on A Win For Digital Rights In Pakistan, One Step At A Time

A Win For Digital Rights In Pakistan, One Step At A Time

We welcome the Senate Committee On Human Rights’ decision rejecting the proposed regulation on Web TV and OTT TV, while declaring that PEMRA does not have any jurisdiction over internet and digital content under the PEMRA ordinance. The Senate Committee on Human Rights conducted a briefing about PEMRA’s proposed regulations, inviting Digital Rights Foundation and other civil society organizations on Monday, 10th of February. 

The committee took notice of proposed PEMRA regulations after a strong statement issued by Digital Rights Foundation, Bolo Bhi, IRADA, Freedom Network and Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists, rejecting PEMRA’s regulation on the whole. Statement was endorsed by dozens of media organizations, the Women Action Forum, Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, Network of Women Journalists on Digital Rights, independent journalists, content creators, CSOs and feminists movements.   

The Chair of the Committee, Mustafa Nawaz Khokhar, objected to the proposed regulation while questioning PEMRA’s very jurisdiction over the internet and digital content. Additionally Senator Ayesha Raza commented that if PEMRA aims to ‘level the playing field’ with these regulations then traditional media needs to be incentivized to create competition, rather than curbing the digital economy. 

DRF’s Executive Director, Nighat Dad said that these regulations would mean PEMRA is threatening Pakistan’s growing digital economy and also the livelihood of  digital content creators and influencers. She pressed how these regulations would add further impediments to freedom to expression, given PEMRA’s power to declare anything as ‘illegal content’. These restrictions, she added, would be contradictory to the vision and spirit of the Prime Minister’s ‘Digital Pakistan’ initiative.

Bolo Bhi’s Director, Usama Khilji, said that these proposed regulations would impact young entrepreneurs given how digital platforms are used in this modern age. He further added that these regulations would stifle the growth of the startups in Pakistan. Moreover, it was pointed out that the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act (PECA) has provisions to hold digital content creators and influencers accountable.

This is a big win for Pakistan not only for digital rights activists but everyone who is part of the digital economy. DRF, Bolo Bhi, Institute of Research, Advocacy and Development, Freedom Network would like to express our gratitude to each organization and individuals who signed our public statement. 

Lastly, we would like to express our appreciation to Senators Mustafa Nawaz Khokhar, Senator Ayesha Raza Farooq, Senator Quratulain Marri, Senator Usman Kakar and Senator Mohammad Tahir Bizenjo, for giving us all the opportunity to present our arguments and for protecting the digital rights and civil liberties of the citizens of Pakistan. 


December 12, 2019 - Comments Off on Digital Rights Foundation conducts its Sixth National Conference on Privacy: #PrivacyIsARight

Digital Rights Foundation conducts its Sixth National Conference on Privacy: #PrivacyIsARight

Digital Rights Foundation (DRF) conducted its “Sixth National Conference on Privacy: #PrivacyIsARight” on December 7, 2019 in Islamabad to discuss issues relating to artificial intelligence, and algorithmic decision-making in the context of privacy rights. The event was supported by one of our key partners, the Friedrich Naumann Foundation.

The keynote address was delivered by former senator Farhatullah Babar. He noted that “the conference was particularly timely given the Prime Minister’s digital Pakistan initiative which currently lacks a perspective on privacy and human rights.” He also said that the University of Balochistan incident demonstrates that the impact of privacy violations is gendered and disproportionately impacts minorities.

The conference featured the Glass Room Exhibit which featured interactive installations such as “The Zuckerberg House”, “The Empire”, “A Data-Day”, “Fake or Real” and “The Real Life of Your Selfie” which were supported by Tactical Tech as part of its global exhibit. This was accompanied by a theatrical performance which dramatised data manipulation of lived experiences and the impact that it has on society. Nighat Dad, the Executive Director of DRF, said that the conference “aimed to contextualise issues of privacy from the perspective of gender, marginalised communities, and interdisciplinary approaches through the use of art and discourse”.

A panel discussion on the topic “The Future of Tech: AI and Algorithms in the Context of the Criminal Justice System & Social Justice” was conducted to tackle the issue of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence and algorithmic decision-making from a human rights perspective. The panelists included Dr. Maryam Mustafa, Dr. Muhammad Nadeem, Rahma M Mian and Aleena Alavi. Dr. Maryam Mustafa said that “AI has an intimate relationship with patriarchy and racism. Initial tests of voice and facial recognition software found that women and people of colour found it nearly impossible to use these features as the software could not ‘recognise’ them.” Academic and writer, Rahma Mian, pointed out that “the idea of development should not be more technology; we need to be able to rethink technology and its harmony with development and advancement of society.”

The event also included a vibrant debate on the proposition “This House Believes That (THBT): Sentencing by judges should be delegated to algorithms”. Oves Anwar (RSIL), Mujtaba Hussain (KPITP) and Usama Khilji (BoloBhi) spoke in favour of the motion. A team of Malaika Raza, Aniqa Arshad and Zoya Rehman argued against the proposition. The debaters spoke about the structural problems with the justice system, human bias, reformative justice and biased data sets. Oves Anwer spoke about the inherent biases that humans are socialised into and how technology can be a tool to neutralise structural injustices that manifest themselves in judgments. The opposition team made the argument that technology tends to replicate and exasperate societal exclusions and the use of algorithms in sentencing cannot fix the larger problem of inequality in society. At the end of the debate, the audience voted in favour of the proposition.

For more information log on:

#PrivacyisaRight #PrivacyAwarenessWeek

For more information contact:
Zainab Durrani, Project Manager

[email protected]

0324 4538410
Nighat Dad. Executive Director

[email protected]